The peasants recognized the second best nature of share-cpping, but not necessarily in the form of the Marshallian paradox: after the civil war, the former slaves sought work and the planters sought workers. The lack of cash or an independent credit system has led to the creation of a sharing system. The next step in our research will be to take into account issues that specifically concern the sharing of polls in southern Kazakhstan and Samarkand. We also intend to extend the scope to the Kyrgyz Republic, which has taken a more liberal approach to land ownership reform (Mogilevskii et al. 2015) and Tajikistan, which is poorer and has experienced a different institutional evolution after the civil war of the 1990s. As a symbol of their newly acquired independence, the freed mule teams had their old slave cabins transported from slave quarters to their own fields. Wives and daughters have significantly reduced their work in the fields and have instead spent more time at home and child care. But the exploitation of the „sharecropping“ system has also contributed to the South`s economy being almost entirely dependent on a single crop, cotton, and that an increasing number of southern states, white and black, have been reduced to tenant agriculture and worked as workers in the countryside they did not have. An alternative path was chosen and forced. In the summer of 1865, President Andrew Johnson was one of the first acts of reconstruction to order that all state-controlled underground land be returned to the owners who had confiscated it. This meant that the plantation and land owners in the south returned to their land but had no labour.
The solution was „sharecropping,“ which allowed the government to combine work with demand and begin the process of economic reconstruction of the nation through employment contracts. „Don`t let yourself be divided by a single part of the thousand years of friendship“ (Paysan, Samarkand). Sharecropping is a type of agriculture in which families lease small land by a landowner in exchange for a portion of their crop that must be paid to the landowner at the end of each year. Several types of sharecropping have been practiced all over the world for centuries, but in rural south it was generally practiced by former slaves. With the Economy of the South in disarray after the abolition of slavery and the devastation of the civil war, a conflict was formed during the era of reconstruction between many white landowners who were trying to re-establish a labour force and freed blacks who sought economic independence and autonomy. In Uzbekistan, new categories of rural agricultural actors have been legally introduced on three types of farms: community farms (Shirkats), commercial farms (close khojaligi) and small farms represented by households (dhkans). The transformation of public farms into Shirkats continued to follow the Soviet style of production based on pudrate. During the first year of farm restructuring, farm workers remained at their jobs; they no longer received monthly wages, but entered into various share-cpping agreements with shirkat farms (Veldwisch and Spoor 2008, p.